Extra carriages and more frequent services will be provided until late at night - after 1am on some routes - to help journeys run as smoothly as possible for spectators as well as regular customers.
ScotRail has been preparing the timetable with Glasgow 2014 and industry partners for more than two years - with more than a million extra journeys expected on its trains during the 11 days of sport.
While the full timetable will be announced in late April, the train operator can today reveal that it will provide:
In the Glasgow area -
Double the number of carriages on the Glasgow Central High Level - Mount Florida route on the nine days that events take place at Hampden Park.
More than double the number of carriages between Glasgow Queen Street Low Level and Carntyne, Partick and Scotstounhill - key stations for lawn bowls, rugby sevens, swimming, squash and table tennis.
Eight trains an hour linking Glasgow Central Low Level with Bridgeton, Dalmarnock and Exhibition Centre - key stations for those attending badminton, boxing, track cycling, gymnastics, judo, netball, wrestling and weightlifting. As most trains will have six carriages - the maximum allowed on the route - this will deliver 86% more capacity to these stations.
There will also be extra carriages on the following 'through-Glasgow' routes -
Edinburgh - Milngavie/Helensburgh
Glasgow - Cathcart Circle/Neilston/Newton
Dalmuir/Milngavie - Larkhall/Motherwell/Lanark.
Rest of Scotland services
ScotRail will use longer trains on many long-distance routes linking Glasgow with other parts of Scotland.
A quarter-hourly service will run on the flagship Edinburgh-Glasgow Queen Street via Falkirk High route for almost the entire day, rather than just at peak times. And more than three-quarters of these train will have six carriages.
Late night trains
ScotRail will run services later into the night than ever before, including some after 1am, to give fans the best opportunity to enjoy the Games, while still allowing enough time for vital overnight maintenance work on trains and infrastructure.
Trains will leave Glasgow later than normal each night of the Games to locations including Airdrie, Ardrossan, Ayr, Balloch, Barrhead, Cumbernauld, Dalmuir, Dumbarton, Dunblane, East Kilbride, Edinburgh, Falkirk, Gourock, Hamilton, Helensburgh, Kilmarnock, Lanark, Largs, Larkhall, Milngavie, Motherwell, Neilston, Newton, Paisley, Perth, Stirling and Wemyss Bay.
The timetable will be introduced on July 21, two days ahead of the opening ceremony, so people can adjust to the changes ahead of the busiest periods.
It will remain in place for a fortnight, until the closing ceremony on August 3.
Steve Montgomery, ScotRail's managing director, said: "We are absolutely committed to providing the best possible transport experience for spectators and our customers during this exciting event. We have been planning this timetable for almost two years - working with Games organisers, local authorities and industry partners to balance the needs of spectators and customers across Scotland.
"I'm confident that we'll make best use of every train, station and stretch of track available during what will be an extremely busy time for Scotland's transport networks."
Transport Minister Keith Brown, added: "With just over 100 days to go until the most exciting summer Scotland will ever see, visitors and commuters alike will welcome the news we are making available as many trains and as many services as possible. This comprehensive rail plan will ensure everyone can rest in the knowledge there will be plenty of public transport options to get them to sporting and live events, even from stations a little further afield.
"In recognising the vital role rail plays in a successful Games, we have also invested around £2million to upgrade and enhance key railway stations that serve the Commonwealth Games sporting venues. This will deliver improvements for commuters and give a fresh new look for our busiest stations ahead of the Games."
Transport within designated Glasgow city boundaries, to and from venues, on ScotRail services will be free for Clyde-sider volunteers and is included in the price of the Games ticket for Glasgow 2014 spectators.
Full details of the national Games timetable, including individual train times, will be available in late April 2014, along with details of the areas covered by free travel.