The Play on Pedals project was inspired by the Commonwealth Games coming to the city.
Organisers hope it will encourage a lifelong relationship with cycling among future generations of young people.
The scheme, which is run by a number of charities including Glasgow Bike Station will be available to all 7500 four-year-olds across the city over the next two years.
It will deliver training sessions in nurseries, create a pool of 500 bikes for families to borrow, establish family cycling groups, set up an annual city-wide bike swap and host a children's cycling festival.
Play on Pedals development officer Polly Jarman said: "In creating a future generation of cyclists, we hope to make Glasgow a more cycle-friendly city as a whole, delivering our own lasting legacy in the wake of the 2014 Commonwealth Games."
Aileen Campbell, Minister for Children and Young People added: "I am delighted to hear about the Play on Pedals project that is being taken forward in Glasgow, giving every child the opportunity to have fun and learn a new skill.
"We all know how important play and physical activity is in the early years."