The events, which begin next month, will unite a number of BBC radio networks as well as featuring a live performance in CBBC show Blue Peter.
Clean Bandit - who feature string players in their line-up - are to perform a new symphony based on their debut album New Eyes which will be performed live on Radio 1 on September 10 to begin the season.
Culture Club will be accompanied as they play their album Colour By Numbers, which included hits Karma Chameleon and Church Of The Poison Mind, in a show to be broadcast by Radio 2.
Radio 3 will team up with Blue Peter for a concert featuring music from the BBC's Ten Pieces project, which aims to introduce youngsters to classical works such as Grieg's In The Hall Of The Mountain King, Mars from Holst's The Planets and A Night On The Bare Mountain by Mussorgsky.
Cocker will work with the orchestra for a special edition of his Wireless Nights programme for Radio 4, while Radio 5 live will broadcast The Symphony of Medinah which tells the story of the 2012 Ryder Cup through music, narration and poetry.
The acclaimed US singer-songwriter John Grant will be backed by the 90-strong orchestra for a Radio 6 Music concert in which he will play songs from his album Pale Green Ghosts.
The BBC Philharmonic Presents... season also includes a BBC Asian Network celebration of the music of Indian composer RD Burman, while the recollections of a First World War soldier are set to music for a BBC Radio Manchester performance.
Simon Webb, general manager of the BBC Philharmonic, called it "an outstanding line-up of varied and imaginative collaborations across our national radio networks".
Bob Shennan, director of BBC Music, said: "These unique collaborations will bring together the internationally renowned BBC Philharmonic and globally acclaimed artists, showcasing some wonderfully diverse music to our audiences and engaging listeners across the country through our national radio networks."