Footage of Bloom having to be separated from the 20-year-old Canadian singer was posted on the TMZ website, which claimed the pair almost came to blows in Cipriani's restaurant in the island's capital, Eivissa.
Bieber, whose clean-cut image has been muddied by several scrapes with the law in recent months, later posted a picture on Instagram which appeared to show Kent-born Bloom crying.
It shows the 37-year-old Pirates Of The Caribbean actor looking down with his eyes closed, with one hand held up to his eye as if to wipe away a tear.
It has so far been "liked" by almost half a million of Bieber's followers.
TMZ reported that, not long after the row in the early hours of Wednesday, Bieber posted a picture of Bloom's ex-wife, Australian model Miranda Kerr, before quickly deleting it.