West George Street, leading to George Square, will be resurfaced ahead of the Commonwealth Games.
The two weeks of work, which starts on Monday, will also reduce the amount of road space as the pavement is to be extended by one metre.
It will affect the stretch from the junction with Buchanan Street to Dundas Street, where a 12-hour bus gate is due to be installed later in the year.
Once completed it will reduce the current three lanes of traffic to two, but one lane will still be available at certain times for loading.
Parking will be suspended and bus stops moved.
Taxi drivers are concerned about access for passengers getting to and from Queen Street station, as both ranks either side of the station will shut and a new temporary stance set up further east on George Street.
There are also concerns about disabled access to the station.
Stephen Flynn, vice chairman of Glasgow Taxis Ltd, said: "The prospect of this key area, which provides access to the heart of the city, being reduced to just one lane is a fairly grim one, not just for our members and drivers but for those people hoping to access or leave the city centre quickly."
A letter to local businesses stated: "These works involve replacement of existing granolithic concrete surfacing with asphalt.
"Extending existing nearside kerbline out by approximately 1m form Buchanan Street to Dundas Street."
A spokeswoman for Strathclyde Partnership for Transport said: "We are aware of the refurbishment plans.
"SPT has notified bus operators and notices will appear on bus stops."