Priorities include electrifying the Glasgow to Edinburgh line to shorten journey times and increase capacity.
The company is submitting a five-year business plan to the rail regulator, setting out proposals for improvements across the UK.
The plan includes a rolling programme of electrification.
Routes to be electrified include East Kilbride and Coatbridge.
Signalling and track works on the West Coast Main Line in Lanarkshire will reduce journey times and increase capacity.
It has also committed to reopening 30 miles of railway connecting the Borders with Edinburgh.
It also plans to improve the route between Aberdeen and Inverness, with a new station added at Kintore.
In June last year the Scottish Government set out its own rail investment plans.
David Simpson, Network Rail route managing director for Scotland, said: "In Scotland, rail travel is more popular than ever and demand is predicted to continue to grow.
"A wide range of enhancements have been identified which will continue to grow capacity and extend the reach of rail in the years ahead, while driving down costs, increasing cross industry cooperation and improving value for both passengers and taxpayers."
As well as publishing its strategic business plan, Network Rail has published an accompanying document, A Better Railway for a Better Britain.
It has outlined ten key commitments for the future, including investing in new technology and investing in infrastructure now to save on long-term costs