The star receives an MBE as does racing driver Dario Franchitti, while prominent members of Glasgow's emergency services are also honoured.
Barrowman, 47, a star of TV series Torchwood and also known for starring in Glasgow panto with The Krankies, said he was thrilled by his MBE.
Speaking from Sydney, Australia, he said: "I'm going to enjoy it for the rest of my life. It's one of the proudest things, thus far, that has ever happened to me.
"I never expected to get an honour like this. You hear about other people getting them but never expect it yourself.
"I was signing autographs on a Saturday about two months ago and my manager Gavin just said, 'Oh my God'.
"I thought maybe something was wrong and he said, 'You're getting an honour'. I just stood up and thought, 'How can this be, what have I done?'."
He said he would be having a small celebration now he could go public with the honour.
He admitted: "It was the hardest thing to keep quiet - I just had to keep my mouth shut
"I'm going to crack open a bottle of champagne with the people who are out in Sydney with me."
The actor, who is in Australia to promote his drama series Arrow, moved with his family to America as a child and has been a prominent figure in London West End shows for many years.
He said when he made his trip to Buckingham Palace he would be accompanied by his parents and his husband Scott Gill.
Franchitti, the three-time Indy500 winner, is being given his MBE just months after he announced he will no longer be able to compete because of injuries suffered in a crash.
The 41-year-old, from Bathgate, was married to Hollywood actress Ashley Judd.
Police Scotland Chief Superintendent Andy Bates has been awarded the Queen's Police Medal.
The Glasgow crimebuster, who has more than 30 years' service, was recognised for services to law and order.
Mr Bates was appointed Divisional Commander for Greater Glasgow, as part of the new national police service, which came into effect last year. In his first year in the post, serious and violent crime reached record lows, with initiatives focused on violence and domestic abuse.
Lewis Ramsay, Assistant Chief Officer of the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service, receives the Queen's Fire Service Medal.
The father-of-two, from Glasgow, said he was "delighted" to be recognised.
The 45-year-old, who joined Strathclyde Fire Brigade in 1989, said: "I am flattered to have been recognised in this way.
"I feel very humbled and grateful and would like to thank all who have supported me over the years."
Assistant Chief Officer Dave Boyle, who is based in Glasgow, also receives the Queen's Fire Service Medal.
The 49-year-old said: "I am delighted, and somewhat overwhelmed, to have been nominated and awarded this prestigious honour.
"The creation of the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service is the latest step in delivering a truly world class public service to all our communities."
Also receiving the Queen's Fire Service Medal is Alex Clark, Deputy Chief Officer Scottish Fire and Rescue Service.