First Minister Alex Salmond will mark the occasion with an inaugural lecture at the centre in the city's Soho district, while he is in the city for the annual Scotland Week celebrations.
The university will host a Scottish fashion event as part of the week promoting Scottish business.
The New York campus will begin with a series of non degree programmes in fashion business, brand management and finance and risk management.
It will progress to a range of part-time and full-time Masters Degree programmes, if it gets approval of the education authority.
The campus follows a similar initiative in London.
Pamela Gilles, principal of Glasgow Caledonian University, said: "The opening of our Wooster Street campus brings together three great cities - Glasgow, London, and New York - which share a history of multi-cultural endeavour and enterprise, coupled with a strong desire for continuous learning, a deep-rooted social conscience and a commitment to the common good.
"Glasgow Caledonian University, its students and staff and the partners we work with in industry and the public sector will benefit enormously from the New York campus, which represents a key element in our internationalisation strategy."
Cara Smyth, former Burberry director, will lead the operation with Professor Mike Mannion, pro-vice chancellor research co-ordinating between Glasgow and the US.
Ms Smith said: "GCU New York is delighted to be playing a key role during Scotland Week with our opening activities.
"We look forward to fostering partnerships between Scotland and New York to support our shared initiatives."