The Parkhead legend – who also played for Hibernian and Motherwell – died at Glasgow Royal Infirmary last week after suffering a suspected stroke. He was 74.
Hundreds of his friends and family were joined by former Celtic greats including Lisbon Lions Billy McNeil, Jim Craig, John Clark and Bertie Auld.
Dixie Deans, Tom Boyd, Billy Stark, Tosh McKinlay, Tommy Callaghan and Danny McGrain were also there to pay their respects along with Celtic chief executive Peter Lawwell and Rangers legend Sandy Jardine.
The funeral was led by Parish Priest, Father Nicholas Monaghan, and the order of service was concluded with The Irish Blessing.
McBride was best known for his goalscoring exploits at Celtic between 1965 and 1968, when he netted 86 times in 94 games.
He won two League titles and two League Cups at Celtic Park but was not part of the famous Lisbon Lions side that became the first British team to win the European Cup in 1967.
The striker suffered an injury in December 1966 which ruled him out of rest of the season, having already scored 35 goals in 26 games.
Celtic chief executive Peter Lawwell paid tribute to McBride, who also worked as an ambassador for the club.
He said: "Joe was a very fine man, an absolute gentleman and someone who gave tremendous service to the club over a number of years."
Celtic boss Neil Lennon – who is with his squad on a pre-season tour of Germany and Holland – also offered the sympathies of everyone at the club.
He said: "The loss of Joe is terrible news.
"It was a pleasure to be in Joe's company, and on a personal level, Joe was someone who was always very supportive to myself."
The aisles of St Dominic's were packed for the service and the Lisbon Lions in attendance were all seated together in the front row.
McBride's son, Joe Junior, and other family members greeted guests as they arrived.
Comedian, actor and lifelong Celtic fan Tony Roper was joined at the funeral by former Partick Thistle star Chic Charnley and current Clyde manager Jim Duffy.
Jimmy Johnstone's widow, Agnes, was also at St Dominic's.
McBride started his career with Kilmarnock before a short spell in England led to him moving to Partick and then Motherwell, where he was top goalscorer for three successive seasons.
Motherwell chief executive Leeann Dempster said: "Although Joe will be remembered by most for his time with Celtic, Fir Park fans will always hold him in high regard."
The striker earned two Scotland caps during his career and also had stints at Dunfermline and Clyde.