The event, on June 23, will be contested over part of the proposed course for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, and with the majority of racing based in the city centre, it will make for a spectacular backdrop for an epic weekend of elite cycling.
UK sports body British Cycling, said it received unprecedented interest from towns and cities around the UK, but Glasgow came out top.
Jonny Clay, British Cycling's membership director said: "In recent years we've seen our national road championships won by riders who between them have won numerous Olympic and World Championship medals, as well as the Tour de France.
"The stature of the event and the calibre of the riders who contest it have been reflected in the competition to host the race for 2013.
"We received some great applications and there were several bids."
Councillor Archie Graham, the depute leader of Glasgow City Council and the executive member for the Common- wealth Games, said: "There's never been a more exciting time for cycling in Britain, thanks to the outstanding performances of our cyclists at last year's Tour de France and Olympic Games .
"Glasgow is committed to the development of cycling at all levels as shown by our investment in the £113million Emirates Arena which includes the Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome.
"Our desire to bring major events such as this and the recent UCI Track Cycling World Cup to the city, will help inspire the next generation of cyclists."
The championships will be in the city from June 20, when time trials take place, to June 23 when the men's and women's road races will take centre stage.