The cash will help fund a new multi-faith campus for a Roman Catholic school which will merge with two non-denominational schools on a site in the north west of the city.
Councils were asked earlier this year to bid for part of an £80million fund for new schools, and Glasgow asked for cash for a school already approved, but not yet started.
Michael Russell, Education Secretary, announced that 30 schools, including Garscadden Primary in Glasgow, will get cash.
Garscadden will merge with Yoker Primary and be co-located with the new St Brendan's Primary, to which the Scottish Government had previously allocated £2.8m.
Mr Russell said cash would be allocated to another nine councils in the west of Scotland for new secondary and primary schools.
The schools include five secondaries, four primaries and one Additional Support Needs schools across Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, Dunbartonshire and Ayrshire.
The Scottish Government's Schools For the Future programme, through the Scottish Futures Trust, will fund 67% of each secondary school and 52% of every primary school.
Mr Russell said: "By identifying all schools now, we can get the projects moving and offer some certainty to one of Scotland's key industries, providing a welcome boost to our economic recovery."
Gordon Matheson, leader of Glasgow City Council said: "In the last 10 years this council has spent over £550million on improving Glasgow's schools and this has resulted in over 100 new establishments across the city.
"Let's be clear, Glasgow City Council will not be taking such a piecemeal approach to improving our schools. We have ambitions for all of the city's children."