Environmental charity Friends of the Earth Scotland discovered that Hope Street had the highest levels of nitrogen dioxide and fine particles last year.
The charity used data from roadside and kerbside monitoring stations to compile a league table.
In 2012 Hope Street was number one in the top 15 most polluted sites, with its reading almost double the European standard for nitrogen dioxide.
These forms of air pollution have been linked to health problems such as asthma and other respiratory conditions. The charity said new research has linked exposure to fine particles with heart attacks.
Other streets with high levels of nitrogen dioxide include Byres Road, in the West End, Central Road, Paisley and St John's Road, Edinburgh.
Streets with high levels of particulate matter include Irvine High Street in North Ayrshire.
Emilia Hanna, air pollution campaigner for Friends of the Earth Scotland, said: "Air pollution has remained the biggest environmental threat to people in Scotland in 2013.
"This year, as Scotland hosts the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, and people talk of the legacy of the Games for youngsters here and across the participating nations.
"Potential athletes need clean air, not an increased risk of developing conditions such as asthma."