Susan Aitken, councillor for Langside, will replace Graeme Hendry as head of the Nationalist opposition grouping.
The 42-year-old, who lives in the city's Queen's Park area, is a graduate of Strathclyde University and Glasgow University.
She has been the group's lead councillor on social work issues for the past two years.
Following her election, Ms Aitken said: "I am hugely honoured to have been chosen by my colleagues as the new leader of the opposition.
"I am focused on working collectively with my fellow SNP councillors - and those of other parties - to achieve the very best for the people of Glasgow."
Councillor Hendry announced he was quitting as opposition leader earlier this month, citing family reasons.
Yesterday, Mr Hendry said: "With her years of experience behind her and a vibrant and talented group of councillors to lead, I am sure that Susan will be a great asset to Glasgow and the SNP in this role."