George Black, who is paid around £170,000 a year, took over the top council job in 2003.
He joined the then Glasgow District Council in 1990 as assistant chief accountant and following several promotions, became finance director in 1999.
He is the most senior official in Scottish local government and was made a CBE in 2010 in the Queen's Birthday Honours List.
The date of his departure and the process for choosing a successor will be announced at a later date.
Mr Black, 61, said: "It has been a real honour to serve the people of Glasgow as chief executive for 11 years.
"In that time the city has been transformed.
"However, there is still a lot to do and now is the right time to look for a new chief executive to manage the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead."
City council leader Gordon Matheson said: "George's advice and support to me, and all members of the council, has been invaluable."