Keep Scotland Beautiful, the Marine Conservation Society and the Scottish Seabird Centre have come together for the campaign to rid the coastline of litter, which kills seabirds as well as dolphins, seals and turtles.
The groups point out plastic and polystyrene can be broken down into small bits in the sea and these can then be ingested by birds, resulting in death.
Plastic bags can cause animals to become tangled and the bags can also be mistaken for jellyfish and other food by dolphins and turtles.
Derek Robertson, chief executive of Keep Scotland Beautiful, said: "The Clean Up Scotland campaign is aimed at making people understand the consequences of their actions.
"There are almost 1700 items of litter on every kilometre of coastline. We hope that statistic will shock everyone who drops litter into changing their behaviour."