The question 'Should Scotland be an independent country?' will be put to all eligible voters over the age of 16.
With one year to go, despite the opinion polls consistently showing a considerable lead for a vote against independence, neither campaign is accepting the result is a foregone conclusion.
The Evening Times asked two of the leading campaigners in the debate their thoughts on how the debate is shaping up.
Nicola Sturgeon, Glasgow Southside, SNP MSP and Deputy First Minister, is on the Advisory Board of the Yes Scotland Campaign, arguing for independence.
Alistair Darling, Labour MP and former UK Chancellor, is leader of the Better Together campaign pushing for a No vote.
In the last year only one recognised poll has put a Yes outcome ahead of No vote.
The gap in one poll was as much as 29 percentage points in favour of a No vote.
Mr Darling admitted noting was certain and Ms Sturgeon said other analysis showed there was plenty of hope.
Ms Sturgeon said: "We have got work to do, but I am confident as I have always been.
"We have been seeing undecided people moving to Yes, and more often when people think No means no change, which it does.
"Of course we have a big job to do, but that has always been the case."
Mr Darling said: "Polls one year out don't tell us what the result will be.
"Opinion doesn't appear to have shifted much, but there are a lot of people still to make their minds up."
With unofficial campaigns been running ever since 2011 when the SNP won a majority at Holyrood the next year in Scottish politics will be increasingly dominated by the referendum.
Mr Darling said the onus is on the pro-independence campaign to provide answers while Ms Sturgeon said people will know what they are deciding on.
He believes the campaign has been so long because the SNP knows it can't win an independence referendum, despite Alex Salmond winning a majority at Holyrood.
He said: "They are putting forward the proposition for change therefore they have to make the positive case.
He said he wanted answers on currency and pensions.
He added: "People say they want to know more about it, so I am looking forward to the White Paper from the Scottish Government."
Ms Sturgeon said: "People will know what they are saying Yes or No to.
"The White Paper will give people the information needed to make the decision on."
She said there will be other reports on pensions and the economy before the white paper is released expected to be later this year.
Mr Darling said the economy was a serious concern and said Alex Salmond's statement that Scotland would not take on a share of UK debt unless there was a currency union was "stupid".
He said: " It is one of the most stupid things you can do. If people think you will default on debt they will think you are not good for the money and won't lend.
"Any agency would be looking at what was said. It is asking for trouble."
On September 19, next year, the result will be known and one way or another, the matter which has overshadowed all else in politics will be settled.
Ms Sturgeon said if people vote No, which she said she is not countenancing, it will be a missed opportunity. She said: "People will regret the opportunity to take advantage of making decisions in Scotland.
"A No vote means no change and the talk of new powers for the parliament will fade to nothing."
Mr Darling said the implications of independence will not come immediately but said it will quickly become apparent it is not for the better.
He said: "Concerns over what currency Scotland would use would quickly cause uncertainty in the financial services sector.
"It would cause huge uncertainty in the food and drink industry where England is the biggest market."
He said funding pensions would be a big problem and how the share of UK debt is dealt with will cause problems.
Mr Darling and Ms Sturgeon have already taken part in a debate in independence, but the controversy is over whether the Prime Minister David Cameron will face the First Minister Alex Salmond.
The SNP wants a contest but the Tories and also Labour in the Better Together campaign are resisting.
Ms Sturgeon said: "Most people would think a debate between the First Minister of Scotland and Prime Minister of the UK would happen as the question is whether we should be in the hands of Westminster or a parliament in here in Scotland.
"That debate would illustrate the choice."
Mr Darling however said Mr Cameron is not relevant to the debate.
He said: "Alex Salmond's problem is Scotland. It is odd he doesn't want to debate with someone in Scotland.
"I am ready to debate with him, I have debated with Nicola and will debate with others. I am not status conscious."