The work on the Shieldhall Overpass, which will cost almost £4million, will result in diversions being put in place for vehicles weighing more than 7.5tonnes.
Roads bosses say the continued use of the bridge by lorries up to the maximum permitted weight of 44 tonnes could result in it being damaged. Cars as well as emergency and gritting vehicles will not be affected by the restrictions.
The overpass, which is regarded as one of the city's most important roads, carries around 60,000 vehicles a day.
Work is due to start in the middle of December and the length of the job will be known only once the strength tests are carried out.
The size and complexity of the overpass, as well as its importance in the overall road network, means a number of improvement options will be considered.
Brian Devlin, Glasgow City Council's executive director of land and environmental services, said: "This £3.75m investment is great news for the people and businesses of Glasgow.
"By carrying out this planned maintenance work, we are proactively extending the use of the overpass and maintain this important transport link to the Clyde Tunnel, the new South Glasgow Hospital and the M8.
"We are now also looking to have a meaningful discussion with Transport Scotland given the increasing demand on the road network."
Diversions will be in place to and from the M8 eastbound and westbound and from the A739 northbound.