Unite suspended a planned stoppage last month at the site on the Clyde, but has revived action after most of its members turned down a 2% offer.
A two-hour walkout will be held from 10am on March 11, followed by "staged stoppages" as well as a work to rule and overtime ban.
The dispute is between Unite and contractors Babcock, which the union claimed was paying "eyewatering" bonuses to top directors.
National officer Ian Waddell said: "Babcock's top four directors are making hay, sharing £7million between them and then taking a 9% increase on their basic pay.
"All the while the company sees fit to impose years of real-term cuts on a workforce that has done everything to help this private sector giant fulfil its business objectives.
"Our members are no longer prepared to play the part of the poor relations.
"A prolonged period of industrial action will severely disrupt day-to-day operations at the Faslane and Coulport bases, but the workers will strive to ensure the safety of the workforce, the naval base and the local communities will not be compromised.
"Unite remains ready and willing to sit down with Babcock again or indeed under the auspices of the conciliation service to try and resolve this dispute which can be easily avoided but the ball is firmly back in the company's court."
Babcock said it was surprised by Unite's decision and insisted it had offered an improved deal.
The firm added: "During the last week we have engaged with our trades unions and carefully listened to their specific concerns."