The city council wants to create avenues which will encourage people to spend time in the area rather than pass through.
It also hopes to increase the number of trips by public transport, walking and cycling into the main shopping areas.
Pedestrian areas would be improved, harmful traffic emissions cut and road safety and personal security improved.
The consultation will run for the next seven weeks.
Bus hubs could be created in Union Street and Dunlop Street, behind the St Enoch Centre, and in the South Side to cut the number of buses running through the city centre.
Plans to cut the number of buses using Renfield Street and Union Street have also been proposed.
Feedback from the public will play a central role in how the city centre is developed and where the avenues will be located.
Alistair Watson, the council's land and environment spokesman, said: "I would urge as many people as possible to get involved in the consultation and play a key role in forming the transport strategy for their city centre.
"The strategy is of great importance to the city's residents, business and visitors and we want them to play a constructive part in shaping it.
"The plan will make it easier for shoppers to reach the city centre's main shopping areas and also make it easier for retailers to attract customers.
"Workshops and meetings with key stakeholders have already taken place to explore and identify issues, objectives and potential options."
The consultation document can be found at www.glasgow.gov.uk/consultations