The test is being offered to patients in Glasgow who have a higher risk of getting the disease, such as smokers and ex-smokers.
It detects levels of substances in the blood known as autoantibodies, which the body produces when cancer develops.
Researchers say this means the disease could be detected months or even years earlier than it would otherwise be diagnosed.
Up to 10,000 people will be invited to take part in the study, from the Glasgow and Tayside areas, with half of those who sign up randomly selected to take the test.
Researchers will then track what happens to everyone in the study for ten years.
Health Secretary Alex Neil said: "By diagnosing lung cancer at its earliest possible stage, we stand a better chance of being able to treat it successfully, using less aggressive treatments and improving life expectancy.
"The study is co-funded by the Scottish Government and Oncimmune, who developed the test."