Operation Caraway will see officers from all 14 divisions of Police Scotland and British Transport Police join together for the first time.
The two-week initiative will track down thieves and the dealers who trade in stolen material.
Metal theft costs the economy more than £700million each year when cable theft distrupts trains and damage causes power outages.
The operation runs until September 6 and will involve officers visiting scrap metal dealers and carrying out roadside checks.
Superintendent Alan Cunningham of Police Scotland said: "We are committed to putting as many criminals before the courts as possible.
"If you spot any suspicious activity, then let us know."