First Minister Alex Salmond was the first of the 128 MSPs to take the oath following outgoing Presiding Officer Alex Fergusson.
The last was new Glasgow SNP MSP Humza Yousaf, who took it in English then Urdu, wearing a traditional Pakistani sherwani with a Partick Thistle tartan touch with a plaid draped over his shoulder.
He was joined by new SNP colleagues James Dornan and John Mason, and returning MSPs Nicola Sturgeon, Sandra White, Bob Doris and Bill Kidd.
New Glasgow Labour MSP Hanzala Malik also took his oath in English and said a prayer in Arabic.
He was joined in the ranks of the newcomers by Anne McTaggart and Drew Smith. Patricia Ferguson, Paul Martin, Johann Lamont and James Kelly returned for another term.
Ruth Davidson was sworn in for the first time as a Conservative MSP for Glasgow and Patrick Harvie returned for a third term as Green Party MSP. Maureen Watt, SNP, crossed her fingers while taking the oath to the Queen.
Each of the 68 SNP MSPs took their oaths and affirmations wearing a small white rose, inspired by a Hugh MacDiarmid poem The Little White Rose Of Scotland. Labour members wore a red rose, while the five LibDems sported a yellow one.
A total of 84 men and 45 women were sworn in to make up the fourth session of the Scottish Parliament.
Labour's Richard and Claire Baker took their oaths as the only husband and wife MSPs, while Michael McMahon and Siobhan McMahon were the first father and daughter in Parliament.
Fergus and Annabelle Ewing were also sworn in to become the first brother and sister to be MSPs.
MSPs took their affirmation or oath to the Queen and her heirs and successors, with only one, Elaine Smith, Coatbridge Labour, making a protest statement but taking the oath as it was a "legal requirement"
Alex Salmond made a preamble to his oath declaring: "The Scottish National Party's primary loyalty is to the people of Scotland, in line with the Scottish constitutional tradition of the sovereignty of the people."
Later in the day, Tricia Marwick was elected as Presiding Officer and becomes the first woman to hold the post.
The Tories welcomed her appointment, but Labour said selecting a presiding officer from the SNP ranks was not consensus politics.