The Boeing 757, carrying 231 passengers and eight crew, was evacuated on the runway after flying from Turkey last October.
An Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) report identified a faulty auxiliary power unit, which is a power system used as large planes are taxied and passengers disembarked.
The unit was removed and returned to the manufacturer for examination.
However, it has emerged that the same Thomas Cook-operated aircraft was used the following day, without the unit being operated, to take travellers to Tenerife.
But the plane was diverted to Manchester when the pilots detected a strong smell of fuel and began to feel light-headed, forcing them to put on oxygen masks before landing the plane safely.
The AAIB concluded the smell may have been caused by residual oil in the air conditioning or cooling systems from the incident the previous day.
Lawyers representing passengers involved in the incident at Glasgow Airport have called for a review of Boeing's APUs and air conditioning systems, as well as the checks that are carried out after emergencies.
Craig Gourlay, 35, from Lanarkshire, claims he was hurt during the evacuation with his wife and four-year-old son.
He said: "All three of us will never forget how terrifying that experience was and it is important news that the cause of the problems has been identified.
"Also, it is a major concern to not only see the same plane back in service just a day after our problems but also that the flight to Tenerife was then struck by similar problems.
"There will be a lot of people like us who want some clear answers about safety, related to this type of plane, and reassurances these problems won't be allowed to happen again."
Jim Morris, a partner at Irwin Mitchell law firm, which specialises in aviation cases, said: "The fact this second smoke incident occurred the next day is unacceptable and raises very serious flight safety concerns.
"t is vital the full cause and chain of events for both incidents are understood to improve safety."