An anticipated rise of the rate of inflation plus 1% will mean that fares in Scotland will rise by more than 4% from next January.
Commuters into Glasgow today reacted angrily to the new fares, which have also been criticised by the Rail, Maritime and Transport (RMT) union and consumer groups, by holding a protest outside Central Station.
Paul Devine, 26, a building surveyor from Shawlands, who travels into Central Station daily, branded the fare hikes "unjustified". He said: "I just don't see how they can justify another rise in fares.
"It's the third time in as many years, but the service isn't any better.
"I spend £45 a month on fares. The cost is getting out of control.
"If the rises continue, I would consider driving into the city – it would work out about the same price."
Alison Steel, 42, who works in the city centre, often uses the train to travel from in Croy.
She said: "It's shocking that the fares are going up again.
"I already spend £23 every two weeks. Add a price rise, and the cost will be quite hefty."
The increase comes as Scottish rail users face the prospect of cuts in services on the west coast main line between Glasgow and London.
About 20,000 jobs are at risk under cost-cutting proposals.
Protests were held at more than 40 stations across the UK today. Campaigners want the railways returned to public ownership, saying privatisation has led to some of the highest fares in Europe despite a massive increase in taxpayer subsidies.
Stephen Joseph of the Campaign for Better Transport, said: "If the government sticks by its policy, rail fares will rise three times faster than salaries.
"The government knows they can't continue to hit commuters – that's why they've postponed the fuel duty increase. Now they need to give the same help to rail users."
Some fares in England will rise by the Retail Price Index plus 3%, while Wales has yet to set a figure.
Bob Crow of the RMT union said: "The poisonous cocktail of private rail franchising and higher fares looks set to hit Scottish train users with a vicious double-whammy."
A ScotRail spokeswoman said: "No decision has been taken on unregulated fares from January 2013.
"Our strategy will aim to strike the right balance between the economic climate and market demand.
"We are committed to meeting customer demand for high-quality, punctual services.
"This approach enables us to continue to invest in service improvements while ensuring that rail travel remains value for money."