British Transport Police said it was the first police force in Scotland to provide all its officers and support staff with the dedicated training.
Around 250 officers are set to take part in a series of workshops and seminars aimed at raising awareness of the issue.
The initiative, being carried out in conjunction with anti-sectarianism charity Nil by Mouth, will be formally launched tomorrow.
It comes less than a week after controversial new legislation aimed at cracking down on sectarian hate crime was passed at Holyrood.
Chief Superintendent Ellie Bird, BTP's area commander for Scotland, said: "Over a number of years the police service has trained its officers and staff to understand cultural difference and to have respect for each other.
"I want to ensure that all my officers who are at the very front line are as best equipped as they can be to deal with unacceptable sectarian anti-social behaviour on our trains and rail network and that we have a working environment where everyone is treated with respect.
"Until now, sectarianism has not been included within that training, and so I have asked Nil by Mouth to help ensure that all our officers and staff feel more confident in identifying sectarian behaviour and ensuring that they can take quick and decisive action when it occurs."
Over the past three years, 72 offences related to sectarianism were recorded by transport police in Scotland.
The training programme has been developed and piloted over the last two years by Nil by Mouth, working with the Scottish Government, the STUC and employers.
The charity's campaign director, Dave Scott, said: "British Transport Police has been hugely supportive of our work in recent years and we are delighted it is making such a public statement of intent.
"Sadly, our public transport system often becomes a focus for sectarian behaviour and it is important that police officers are able to quickly address any issues.
"The message must go out loud and clear: sectarianism has no place in 21st century Scotland."