Part of the ground was blown up at the Miller Homes development in the south of the city, just feet from homes.
But those living at Langlook Road, off Crookston Road, say their homes were shaken by the force and hand-sized rocks propelled into their properties.
Some were left in fear as they were not informed that the explosion would be taking place.
One resident Mohammed Siddique, 34, was working from home when he heard a loud noise like a "bomb going off".
He said: "My whole house shook with the force.
"Boulders came flying at the building and one made contact with a bedroom window.
"If the stone had come through the window, or if it had been open, it could have hit and seriously hurt someone."
He added: "My neighbour has very young children. I dread to think what might have happened if they were out playing in the garden."
Greater Pollok councillor Shabbir Jaffri visited the street after being contacted by worried residents, along with fellow councillor David McDonald.
Both are now calling for a full investigation.
Mr Jaffri said: "Someone could have been killed.
"It does not seem as if adequate safeguards were put in place here, it is completely unacceptable.
"I tried to speak to contractors on the site but no-one could explain to me what had happened. It seems like they were trying to dig a trench as part of the development but hit stone and explosives were used to break this up.
"But surely there should have been measures put in place to ensure debris did not fly into homes.
A spokesman for Miller Homes said: "While specialist contractors were undertaking a preliminary test for groundworks on our site at Crookston Road today a small quantity of soil was dislodged.
"We would like to assure residents that there is no risk and we are liaising with the Health & Safety Executive regarding this matter.
"Our specialist contractors are also looking at alternative methods for the groundworks."