From January 1 next year, all dining establishments will have to present their waste separately for collection, and recycle as much as possible.
The Waste (Scotland) Regulations are regarded as the most significant recycling development seen in Scotland.
Zero Waste Scotland says the new law has the potential to boost the economy and create jobs.
In an attempt to meet the new environmental target, Glasgow Restaurant Association - which represents more than 80 establishments - has signed the deal with the council. It will mean a dedicated team will collect food, glass, dry recycling materials and other waste from a number of eateries from next month.
Council officers will carry out individual visits to new restaurants that join the scheme to create a tailor-made service best suited to their needs.
The agreement will also mean fewer vehicle trips thanks to waste transfer stations placed across the city.
Alistair Watson, the council's land and environmental services spokesman, said: "This alliance is very important for the council and Glasgow Restaurant Association.
"It demonstrates the council's ability to provide large-scale waste and recycling solutions to businesses.
"It also clearly shows the association's commitment to disposing of its waste in a responsible and environmentally friendly way."
Ryan James, chairman of the association, said: "It is a massive change to the way restaurants have previously dealt with waste and will cut our carbon emissions hugely."
Household recycling rates have risen to more than 40% in the past 10 years, but household waste accounts for just over 16% of all waste produced in Scotland.
As a result, the new Waste (Scotland) Regulations turn attention to the waste produced by businesses.
Research has shown achieving 70% recycling by 2025 could benefit Scotland's economy by £175million - easing the burden of rising landfill costs and allowing cash to be generated by selling recyclable materials.