Mumbai medics say the 17-year-old, from a small village in western India, had been suffering from jaw pain and swelling for more than 18 months.
Surgeon Dr Vandana Thoravade said Ashik Gavai suffered from complex odontoma, a rare condition in which a tumour grows underneath the gum and creates smaller tooth-like growths called denticles.
Dr Thoravade said the team of dental surgeons took seven hours to remove all the denticles in an operation earlier this week.
They were surprised at how many denticles were present, and believe it may be the most ever in a case of odontoma.
The teenager is now recovering.