The woman died on Sunday night after becoming unwell inside a house in Renfrew's Paisley Road.
Police were called at around 10.15pm and she was taken by ambulance to the Royal Alexandra Hospital in Paisley where she died a short time later.
A post mortem examination will take place in due course to establish the exact cause of death however, at the moment her death is being treated as unexplained.
Detective Chief Inspector Arlene Smith said: "Extensive inquiries are continuing into the circumstances of the woman's death, and although unconfirmed, one of the lines of enquiry is that prior to her taking unwell she may have taken an illegal substance.
"Given that other people have also fallen ill and are currently in hospital Police Scotland has taken the decision to issue a warning.
"At this time it may be that the drug involved is MCAT, however witnesses believe that the woman may have also taken Ketamine.
"MCAT is the street name for mephedrone. This is a class B drug which is sold in the form of white powder or capsules.
"It is a cathinone and can cause feelings of euphoria and increase alertness and talkativeness.
"Two other women in the house at the time aged 18 and 19 and two men, one aged 24 and one aged 31 years were also taken to the Southern General and Royal Alexandra Hospitals and are being treated after showing symptoms consistent with drug misuse."
Police Scotland is appealing for information from anyone who may have attended a party in the Renfrew area over the weekend and has any information which can help officers progress their inquiry.
Anyone with any information is asked to contact Detective Inspector Suzanne Chow on 101 or anonymously on Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111.