The bank said the investment in new jobs will help its Scottish operation better connect with customers and help businesses expand at home and overseas.
The company will take on more than 100 new project staff in its HSBC Security Services businesses in Glasgow and Edinburgh, and 85 permanent and fixed-term personnel in its Hamilton contact centre.
It will also employ around 20 more people in its Corporate Banking department across Scotland, and create a new private banking team in Aberdeen.
Alison McGregor, chief executive of HSBC in Scotland, said: "HSBC's role in Scotland is to support growth in the Scottish economy, through helping businesses expand in the UK and overseas, supporting individuals and providing quality employment. This is a very positive sign for Scotland and HSBC."
HSBC said it has seen significant growth in Scotland over the past three years.
It has established three large corporate and commercial banking teams in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen, and almost doubled the number of commercial and international banking specialists across these locations.
The bank already employs more than 3,300 people in Scotland, and has increased its branch footprint and headcount as part of a £20 million investment programme.
Lena Wilson, chief executive of Scottish Enterprise, said: "I am delighted that HSBC has taken the decision to expand their presence in Scotland, creating over 200 new jobs across a broad range of roles country-wide.
"This expansion is testament to the attractiveness of Scotland as a location for international corporations, thanks to the skills of our people, a competitive cost base and a well-developed business infrastructure."