Fire bosses said the man had a "lucky escape" after being pulled from the house on Moore Street, in the Gallowgate.
Two appliances from Calton Community Fire Station arrived at the property shortly before 9am this morning.
Scottish Fire and Rescue Service (SFRS) crews reached the scene in less than three minutes to find heavy smoke had already engulfed the property.
Firefighters put out flames that had taken hold in the living room and gave oxygen to the man, who seemed to be suffering the effects of smoke inhalation.
After being checked over by paramedics, the man did not require any further treatment.
Watch Commander Robert Taylor, the incident commander, said: "This fire could easily have resulted in serious injury or the loss of life so it must be a sharp reminder for everyone to act now to prevent tragedy.
"It took only minutes for us to arrive at the incident but thick, black, toxic smoke had already filled the property down to about 5ft from the ground.
"If you think of the height of a bed or a couch, then the danger to life from a fire like this is obvious and the importance of every home having working smoke alarms becomes very apparent."
After clearing the flat of smoke, firefighters visited neighbouring properties to give residents fire safety advice.