The total of 17,244 is still 10 more than the target set by the SNP when it came to office in 2007.
But it has decreased by 252 full-time equivalent officers over a year, and is at its lowest point since December 2010 when there were 17,217 across the country.
The SNP pledged to boost the number of police officers by 1,000 after it formed a minority administration in 2007.
Since then, the figure has increased overall by 6% from 16,234, according to the Scottish Government.
Justice Secretary Kenny MacAskill said: "This Government has worked to protect police numbers and keep our streets safe and this has contributed to an almost 40-year low in recorded crime.
"I am proud that we have continued to keep our commitment to put 1,000 additional officers in communities, and extra officers are already being recruited ahead of the Commonwealth Games.
"Meanwhile in England and Wales officer numbers are expected to drop by more than 15,000 in total with numbers now at their lowest level in 11 years.
"We have always said that police numbers will fluctuate and this publication shows they are moving towards 1,000, continuing to exceed the target while keeping costs down. Alongside Police Scotland and the Scottish Police Authority, we are strongly committed to delivering 1,000 extra officers.
"The creation of Police Scotland and the SPA has allowed local policing to prosper with officers dedicated solely to local policing in each division supported by specialist services and the ability to allocate additional police officers in every area where and when they are needed."