The arrests are part of an ongoing police investigation into complaints of physical and sexual abuse at the former St Ninian's School in Falkland, Fife, in the 1970s and 1980s.
The school was reportedly run by the Catholic organisation known as the Christian Brothers.
It is understood the men were arrested at various locations across the country earlier this year.
The six, aged between 60 and 76, have been released on bail and a report has been sent to the procurator fiscal at Cupar.
A spokesman for Police Scotland said: "Six men have been arrested and charged with multiple complaints of physical and sexual abuse at the former St Ninian's School in Falkland, Fife in the 70s and 80s.
"This investigation remains live and ongoing."
A Crown Office spokesman said: "The procurator fiscal at Cupar has received a report concerning six males, aged 60, 61, 62, 71, 74 and 76, in connection with alleged incidents between January 1978 and July 1983.
"The reports remain under consideration by the procurator fiscal."