The Scottish SPCA i was alerted after the female terrier cross was handed in to a local police station on Monday, April 28.
The white and tan coloured dog, estimated to be around a year old, is now in the care of the charity's Dunbartonshire and West Scotland Animal Rescue and Rehoming Centre in Milton, where she has been named Sophie.
Senior Inspector Nicki Scott said: "Sophie is very thin and the vet thinks she has recently reared a litter of puppies.
"It seems poor Sophie hasn't been receiving the care she needs but unfortunately she isn't microchipped so we're appealing to anyone who recognises her to contact us and help us trace her owner.
"In addition, we're keen to speak to anyone who thinks they may have bought one of Sophie's puppies as this could also assist us with our enquiries.
"Sophie is a really sweet girl but she is extremely nervous and especially wary around men.
"We'll continue to look after her and ensure she receives the proper diet she desperately needs."
Anyone who recognises Sophie is being urged to contact the Scottish SPCA animal helpline on 03000 999 999.