Ministers have set out proposals to provide £1.2 billion of additional resources in 2017-18 and a further £2.4 billion in 2018-19.
Described as a "credible alternative to Westminster's austerity plan", it would support the economy while ensuring that Scotland's deficit continued to fall as a share of GDP, the Government said.
New analysis claims that the economic impact of such an increase in public spending could boost output by £1.5 billion and support up to 30,000 jobs.
Finance Secretary John Swinney said: "Independence will give us the ability to choose spending and tax policies that best match the needs of Scotland.
"Scotland is one of the wealthiest countries in the world - and we can use that wealth to help grow the economy further by investing in public services and Scotland's infrastructure.
"With independence we could, within an overall commitment to fiscal responsibility, say no to cuts and provide a credible and sustainable alternative to the current UK Government's austerity plan.
"By providing up to £2.4 billion in additional investment we could boost our economy to levels equivalent to supporting up to 30,000 jobs whilst still ensuring that public sector debt was falling as a share of our national income.
"We have a clear choice -stick with Westminster's planned cuts, or invest in Scotland's public services to support economic growth, create jobs and tackle inequality."
But Labour MP Ian Murray said: "John Swinney wants to pile more and more debt onto the shoulders of Scottish families just so that he can achieve his dream of independence."