Inverness granted permission for the 54-year-old former England captain to meet with the Tykes on Monday, but he has informed his club of his decision to stay with them.
He becomes the second manager to turn down Barnsley since they sacked Keith Hill at the end of December, with Sean O'Driscoll having opted against taking the job on Sunday.
Butcher said: "I was pleased that Caley Thistle gave me the opportunity to talk to Barnsley, who were excellent to deal with.
"But I have decided that my future lies at Inverness. We have been going extremely well to be second in the SPL, still in the Scottish Cup and with a League Cup semi-final to look forward to later this month."
The news that Butcher is staying will be of great relief to Caley fans, who have seen their side move up the Scottish leagues.
They are currently Celtic's nearest challengers in the title race, albeit by nine points, and European football could be on the cards later this year.
"We're delighted that Terry Butcher is to remain with us and the fans will greatly welcome the news," said chairman Kenny Cameron.
"When Barnsley made their approach we felt that out of courtesy we should allow Terry the opportunity to meet with them. But it is a huge relief that he has opted to stay.
"These are exciting times at this club under the management of Terry and Maurice Malpas and we now look forward to maintaining what has been a wonderful season."